These stone carvings represent four eras in Italy’s history. They begin with The Roman Period, represented by the letters S.P.Q.R. (“The Senate and People of Rome”) and a Roman warrior. The Italian Renaissance bears a carving of the Roman numerals MCCCC (1400), the universally accepted date of the start of the Italian Renaissance, along with a shield decorated with a palette and brushes. Below the two flags in the third carving, Italian Independence of 1870, is the Italian motto for “Death or Liberty”. The Fascist Regime represents the fascist Italian government lead by Benito Mussolini.